If further heat treatment is required annealed aisi 4140 should be heated slowly to 840875c and after adequate soaking at this temperature quench in oil. Quench cracks 3 ways to recognize quench cracks result from stresses produced during the transition from austenite to martensite, which involves an increase in volume. I even made a larger hand hammer out of 4140 since this has happened and did a full quench on it and it didnt crack. Normal ranges of mechanical properties corresponding to a specific hardness are listed below. Quench cracks 3 ways to recognize speaking of precision. Yes essentially but in larger sizes etc etc you will not get a quick enough quench to get the required hardness using oil. I think quenching in oil and tempering led to good strength and hardness. The stress amplitude corresponding to each strain amplitude was calculated from the peak load amplitude at the specimen halflife.
Due to its good hardness penetration and uniformity, flame hardening, induction hardening, or oil hardening can increase the wear resistance of 4140 steel. It does this by reducing the window of time during which these undesired reactions are both thermodynamically favorable, and kinetically. It has the highest strength compared to the other variants of saeaisi 4140 steel. The common ways in which quench cracking can occur from heat treating include. Quench cracks do not have decarburization apparent, since the. A type of heat treating, quenching prevents undesired lowtemperature processes, such as phase transformations, from occurring. Oliver steel plate is a steel service center specializing in stocking, processing, and delivering carbon and alloy steel plate. We need to remember that all heats of any lowalloy steel such as 4140 do not respond to quenching the same. Sharp changes of section, lack of radii, holes, sharp keyways and unbalanced sectional mass create stress risers in locations where cracking is likely to occur.
As mentioned before, always consider the times and temperature of a postweld thermal treatment whether pwht, annealing, normalizing, or quench and tempering to ensure that the filler metal to be used will provide or maintain adequate mechanical properties. The quenched and tempered of 4140 alloy steel production process. The 800 600 400 200 30 oil 60 90 time, s 120 150 o fig. At 900 c, the specimen was considered as completely austenitized 100% austenite. I quench small parts no thicker than 14 in a blast from the air hose then draw to whatever temper i want. The mechanical properties of aisi 4140 steel shaft with a diameter larger than 200 mm are difficult to meet the requirements and cracking. Typically anvils do not require tempering as getting overhard on such large chunks of steel is unlikely. It facilitates hardening of steel by controlling heat transfer during quenching, and it enhances wetting of steel during quenching to minimize the formation of undesirable thermal and transformational gradients which may lead to increased distortion and cracking. Aisi 4140 steel is usually supplied ready heat treated to 1822hrc. This article discusses overheat ing and burning, residual stresses, quench cracking, and distortion in some detail and offers some suggestions to combat them. If the use of water as quenching medium, 4140 steel cooling speed is faster at high temperature range, but the cooling speed is slow at low temperature range lower than the ms temperature.
Quench cracking promoted by nonmetallic inclusions in aisi 4140 steel heat treatment defects quench cracks heat treatment defects quenched from an excessively high temperature tool steels fractography heat treatment defects. Fatigue crack growth behavior of austempered aisi 4140 steel with. Sae aisi 4140 steel properties, material heat treatment. As an example of the material models employed by jmatpro, the ttt curves of the 4140 steel are given in figure 4, where the austenite grain size is taken as astm 9 and austenisation temperature taken as 900c. Quench cracking in aisi 4140 low alloy steel fastener. Remove the steel from the heat treat oven and immediately submerge the steel in a trough of mineral oil to quench it, setting the hardness within the steel.
The best way to prevent cracking would be to anneal the 4140 part before welding. Fabricating and repairing 4 and 4140 steels in heavy equipment welding the strength of these steels is great for parts that require high strength and durability, but their higher carbon, chromium and molybdenum levels also make them more susceptible to cracking. The material of interest is an aisi 4140 steel with nominal composition wt. If the use of water as quenching medium, 4140 steel cooling speed is faster at high temperature range, but the cooling speed is slow at low temperature range lower than the. All common arc welding processes, such as saw, smaw, fcaw, gmaw, gtaw can be used to weld 4140 alloy steel, but in order to prevent cracking, it must be preheated to 170350 c 350650 f before welding, preheating interpass temperature depends on the section thickness of the steel. The effect of tempering on susceptibility to stress corrosion. Timed quenching process for largescale aisi 4140 steel shaft. Detail hobart brothers performance welding products. Failures of steel parts in service or production occur very infrequently. Atmosphere is an option for polymer quench and tempering if decarburization is of concern. The elements that have the strongest effect are c, mn, mo and cr for 4140. Aisi 4 is a chromiummolybdenum steel that is in general aviation use due to its well established heattreating practices and processing techniques. Here are seven ways that steel can fail as a result of quench cracking from heat treatment. The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare quenched and tempered saeaisi 4140 to.
In a section this large you cannot blow enough air to make difference. Capabilities for oil quenching steel we oil quench steel of the following grades. The same charts in 4140 are based on being quenched in oil. This is done by heating the material to a certain temperature, depending on the material. Bar data handbook aisisae chemical compositions and metallurgical data. Aisi 4140 is a chromiummolybdenum steel that can be heat treated to higher strength levels or in thicker sections than aisi 4. Here are 7 ways that steel can fail as a result of quench cracking from heat treatment. I made this little top fuller, and it cracked on quench. Steel dynamics is committed to product and process improvement. Our polymer quenching hardening heat treatment can be the solution for jobs that do not respond properly to oil quenching. The most common test for studying these effects is the jominy end quench test. Temper as soon as the tools reach room temperature.
This study presents finite element fe simulations of the quenching of aisi 4140 steel crings in oil and water, which is compared with experimental data. Jade band marigold introduction atlas 4340 is a nominally 1. Atlas 4140 is a chromiummolybdenum throughhardening steel of medium. They appear to bear no definite relation to any of the. What is the best heat treatment method for achieving the highest. Welding is not recommended because of the likelihood of quench cracking. Jun 04, 2012 but but but isnt 4140 an oil hardening steel says i. Welding of steel 4340 in the hardened and tempered condition as normally supplied, is not recommended and should be avoided if at all possible, because of the danger of quench cracking, as the mechanical properties will be altered within the weld heat affected zone. Distortion and crack prediction and experiments in. The hot parts are then quenched in a liquid, usually oil for medium carbon plate or alloy plate like 1045, 4140, or 4340 or water for low carbon alloy grades like a514.
American iron and steel institute grade 1095 steel is a high carbon, simple steel. The effect of tempering on susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking of aisi 4140 steel in 33% sodium hydroxide at 80c article in materials science and engineering a september 2001 with 71. A fatigue strain life curve for the 4140 quenched and tempered steel is shown in figure. This paper focuses on the quenching temperature, waterair cycle time and cycle index to prevent cracking for aisi 4140 steel.
The difference is that its high carbon content can screw things up. Carburizing also requires a quench to be hard and is very shallow, insufficient for an anvil. You could quench it in water but you risk cracking it as 4140 is an oil. Six pieces of bar stock for each of the four grades of oil hardening steel 01 tool steel, 4140, 4150, and 4340 alloy steels were used for this test. The martensitic transformation starts at the outermost surfaces of the part being quenched. One of our bread and butter items was quenched and tempered 4140 to astm bolting specification sizes from 12 round to 8 round, minimum tempering temperature was 1100 f. How to quenching and tempering of 4140 alloy steel. Remove the steel from the heat treat oven and immediately submerge the steel in a trough of mineral oil to quench it, setting the.
Quenching and tempering provides steel with high strength and ductility. I agree with unclesyd water quenching of 4140 is going to produce cracking and distortion. We start by fully austenitizing the steel in the temperature range of 1500f 1650f, depending on the steel grade. Otai special steel is astm en19 steel stockholders and suppliers from china. Water is an effective medium when the goal is to have the steel to reach maximum hardness. Selecting a steel with too high a hardenability can result in susceptibility to quench cracks and excessive core hardness. Distortion and crack prediction and experiments in quenching. Is it best to perform the relief before or after machining or at some intermediate roughedin stage or at all three stages.
However, different steels have different hardening steps to follow. When you oil quench steel forgings, theres also less risk of cracking compared to water quenching or polymer quenching. The gray material in the crack interior is hightemperature oxide formed during tempering. Punching is a better way to go with higher carbon or alloy steels.
This material at my shop is quenched in 250f agitated oil without any issues. Welding of steel in the hardened and tempered condition as normally supplied, is not recommended and should be avoided if at all possible, because of the danger of quench cracking, as the mechanical properties will be altered within the weld heat affected zone. Aisi 45 has a slightly higher carbon version of aisi 4. Asquenched martensite is hard and brittle it has virtually no ductility. Mar 28, 2012 it is important for heat treaters to understand the mechanisms associated with quench cracking and to take all prudent steps necessary to avoid inservice product failures fig. To accomplish this task, we must work with design and manufacturing engineers on materials selection, manufacturing methods including heat treatment and safety allowances. However, using water can lead to metal cracking or becoming distorted.
Our largest furnace is capable of performing oil quench hardening with internal working dimensions of 36w x 72l x 42h. Ici metals offers a variety of carbon and alloy steel including. Some require much faster cooling for a given thickness, and viceversa. The hot parts are then quenched in a liquid, usually oil for medium carbon plate or alloy plate like 1045, 4140, or 4340 or. Quenching is a stage of material processing through which a metal is quickly brought down to room temperature from a high temperature by rapid cooling. Quench hardening is a mechanical process in which steel and cast iron alloys are strengthened and hardened. Aisi or sae 4 grade is a lowalloy steel containing chromium and molybdenum as strengthening agents. Common media for quenching include specialpurpose polymers, forced air convection, freshwater, saltwater, and oil. Its well known that quenching most alloyed steels starting from aisi 4140 to high speed steels in water, brine, or sometimes oil will cause. This alloy finds many applications for the aerospace and oil and gas industries, along with uses the automotive, agricultural and defense industries. I would suspect that with such a large block of steel the temperature differential with the water pour was just to great and it cracked.
Aisi sae 4140 alloy steel aisi 4140 forgings all metals. Throughhardening low alloy steel bar 4340 colour code. Quench cracks 3 ways to recognize speaking of precision blog. In materials science, quenching is the rapid cooling of a workpiece in water, oil or air to obtain certain material properties. Hardening steels involves the basic process of heating the steel to organize the crystalline structure in a uniform way and then rapidly cooling it by quenching it to lock the molecular makeup of the steel. Quenching oils and heat treatment fluids selection guide. Sae 4140 aisi 4140 steel is a crmo series chrome molybdenum series low alloy steel, this material has high strength and hardenability, good toughness, small deformation during quenching, high creep strength and longlasting strength at high temperature. Whenever you buy alloy steels, try to get a cmtrcertified mill test report with it. Quench cracking along a line of aluminum oxide dross particles in a hex head capscrew. Alloy description timkensteels 4140hw grade is a finegrained, lowalloy steel that offers optimum heattreat response in heavier crosssections. Novel waterair circulation quenching process for aisi 4140 steel. We sent samples of the cracked rods to the steel suppliers metallurgist and he said that there appeared to be a seam in the metal, and that was why it cracked. Quench ing, therefore, is a very important process in the successful hardening of commercial heat treaters have not received any specific mandates from.
A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. Quench cracking in aisi 4140 low alloy steel fastener quench cracking along a line of aluminum oxide dross particles in a hex head capscrew. The first step in the quenchandtemper is to heat the parts to a uniform temperature above the transformation range, usually about 1650. If quench uniformity is required, such as in complying with the caterpillar 1e0106a or 1e0106b specification, polymer quenching is an excellent choice. Aisi 4140 is a chromium molybdenum steel with medium hardenability. Polymer quenching is useful for a wide range of steels. While the water pour is a traditional blacksmith heat treatment i dont believe it is a common technique for heat treatment shops. Quench cracks run from the surface towards the center of mass in a fairly straight line. However, when steel parts fail, the consequences are dire. Purchased as rolled, prehardened ph or in the annealed condition, 4140 steel plate possesses a full range of hardening and wear resistance properties. Saeaisi wrought steels top, all iron alloys middle, and the entire database bottom. Also denoted by qt or qt, these steels are weldable, but care must be taken to adhere to established procedures at all times, as they often have high carbon contents, and thus high hardenability, leading to a hard heataffectedzone haz and susceptibility to cracking. Overheating during the austenitizing portion of the heat treatment cycle can coarsen normally fine grained steels. I have some coke oven chisels that i forge out of w1 which is a water hardening steel but if i quench them in warm water i get 34 out of a batch of 50 cracking.
Much depends on the part size and the thickness of adjacent sections, the radii, holes, sharp corners, etc all play a part. The heat transfer coefficient between aisi 4140 and oil and water quenchants as a function of temperature has already been determined 11, and was used in the present simulation. Oct 27, 2012 i have question about stress relief for steel. Polymer quenching works very well in pretreatment of components that will be induction hardened where a minimum hardness must be maintained in the transition zone. It is possible to weld 4140 quenched and tempered but you have to be ok with at least some cracking.
To avoid cracking you need to preheat 4140 prior to welding. Quench hardening is a mechanical process in which steel and castiron alloys are strengthened and hardened. Tip allow more time per inch for thicker sections of steel, those with more than an inch in diameter, and less time for thinner pieces of steel. According to the actual production situation, we believe that the main reason of quenching crack of 4140 steel plate is. Aisisae 4140 grade is a versatile alloy with good atmospheric corrosion resistance and reasonable strength. I spent about 3 years running the quench and temper line as the ht metallurgist at crucible steel in midland, pa.
Distortion and crack prediction and experiments in quenching aisi. Quenchandtempering or heat treating requirements for 1045, 4140, and 4340 plate usually call out a hardness range, but it is not uncommon for an application to require certain mechanical properties beyond hardness. If i quench them in oil i get them full hard to the core and no cracking. If you are manufacturing parts out of 4140 we can assume that it is in the annealed condition. The aluminum oxide particles were probably added as a killing agent in the steeling practice. Quench cracks result from stresses produced during the transition from austenite to martensite, which involves an increase in volume. Hence we quench in water, in fact our water has a small amount of polymer in it so it probably quenches a little bit quicker than straight water.99 1504 1163 1211 72 345 609 830 231 602 731 1094 455 882 582 207 1116 587 40 194 689 1361 1373 339 917 281 145 378 1069 910 201 744 604 1258 947 929 63 429 684