Patellofemoral syndrome is a condition that describes pain in the front of the knee and around the kneecap, known as the patella. There can be pain around or under the kneecap and sometimes in the back of the knee. Patellofemoral pain syndrome pfs case type diagnosis. Patellofemoral pain syndrome pfps is the most common presentation of knee pain to sports medicine and orthopaedic clinics among adolescents and young adults. Clinicians should also use performance of other functional activities that load the patellofemoral. Diagnosis orthopedics patellofemoral pain syndrome. If needed, take overthecounter pain relievers, such as acetaminophen tylenol, others, ibuprofen advil, motrin ib, others or naproxen. Managing patellofemoral pain syndrome is a challenge, in part because of lack of consensus regarding its cause and treatment. There is no clear consensus in the literature concerning the terminology, aetiology and treatment for pain in the anterior part of the knee. It sometimes is caused by wearing down, roughening, or softening of the cartilage under the kneecap. Patellofemoral pain syndrome pfps is one of the most prevalent. Running or jumping walking when it is flared up sitting going up or down stairs. Diagnostic value of five clinical tests in patellofemoral pain syndrome.
Clinical practice guidelines diagnosis a clinicians should use reproduction of retropatellar or peripatellar pain during squatting as a diagnostic test for patellofemoral pain pfp. Simple treatments such as rest and ice often help, but sometimes physical therapy is needed to ease patellofemoral pain. Patellofemoral pain syndrome pfps is pain that occurs between the patella kneecap and the femur thigh bone. Patellofemoral pain syndrome as well as other problems with the patella are seen far more frequently in women than in men. The nature of injury and specific physical findings, including detailed examination o. Other names for patellofemoral pain syndrome include chondromalacia patellae a reference to the degeneration of cartilage in the joint and moviegoers knee since some. Diagnosis and treatment of patients with patellofemoral pain.
Patellofemoral pain syndrome pfps may cause cmp, although it may also occur separately, commonly because of injury due to any impact. Patellofemoral pain syndrome pfps linkedin slideshare. Patellofemoral pain syndrome may indicate that the protective cartilage under your kneecap is wearing down, which can eventually lead to bone loss and arthritis. By excluding anterior knee pain due to intraarticular pathology, peripatellar tendinitis or bursitis, plica syndromes, sinding larsens disease,osgood. All compared taping versus control no or placebo taping and all included one or more co. The best treatment for patellofemoral pain the ballet blog. The multitude of terminology is secondary to the nature of pain described in or around the patella. Influence of the hip on patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. Foot and ankle characteristics in patellofemoral pain. It is caused by imbalances in the forces controlling. Anterior knee pain, clinical tests, exercise treatment, outcome measures, patellofemoral pain syndrome, participant characteristics. Patellofemoral pain is a common but complex knee problem that occurs in active people. A variety of treatments for patellofemoral pain syndrome are available.
Pfps is the most common knee condition in runners and adolescents 3, 4. Patellofemoral pain often presents as gradual onset of knee pain behind or around the patella it is usually unrelated to trauma, but is associated with greater. Historically it has been referred to as anterior knee pain but this is misleading as the pain can be felt in all aspects of the knee including the popliteal fossa. In fact, xray and mri typically have normal findings in cases of patellofemoral pain. The patientathlete with patellofemoral pain requires precise physical examination based on a thorough history. Anterior knee pain may be idiopathic or the result of localized articular.
There are a few other diagnoses that may be used for pain at or around the kneecap. Jan 15, 2018 patellofemoral pain syndrome or pfps typically refers to anterior knee pain usually occurring during activities such as running, squatting, or walking up and downstairs. Patellofemoral pain affects physically active and sedentary individuals, accounting for 1117% of knee pain presentations to general practice1,2 and 2540% of all knee problems seen in a sports injury clinic. Patello femoral syndrome pfs is an irritation under the knee cap patella and the surrounding tissues due to increased compression. Clinical test for diagnosis of patellofemoral pain syndrome. Patellofemoral pain syndrome was the most common diagnosis reported in a survey of 2002 patients with running injuries, representing 17% of all diagnoses. For this test to be valid, it must be flexed painfree beyond 90 degrees. Patellofemoral pain is an umbrella term used to embrace all peripatellar or retropatellar pain in the absence of other pathologies e. Patients with this syndrome mostly describe pain next to, behind or under the kneecap. Not only do the etiology, diagnosis, and treatment remain challenging, but the terminology used to describe pfp.
Identification of individuals with patellofemoral pain whose symptoms improved after a combined program of foot orthosis use and modified activity. It has to do with the way your kneecap patella moves on the groove of your thigh bone femur. Women naturally stand in a more valgus or knockkneed position, a posture that automatically pulls the patella toward the outside of the leg and places the knee at risk for this uneven stress distribution. Patellofemoral pain sports medicine jama jama network. Pfps is caused by an abnormality in how the patella slides over the lower end of the femur. Patellofemoral pain syndrome physiotherapy treatment. Patellofemoral pain syndrome is common among runners and other athletes. Patellofemoral pain syndrome manhattan orthopedic care. Patellofemoral pain syndrome barts health nhs trust. The best treatment for patellofemoral pain patellofemoral pain syndrome pfps is a general term for pain around or behind the knee cap. The first was before and the second was right after their first treatment. Doctors may also call patellofemoral syndrome jumpers knee.
Patellofemoral pain syndrome pfps is a common knee disorder, which often affects the senior athlete and those involved in running and jumping sports. Patellofemoral pain syndrome is defined as pain around the kneecap. Patellofemoral pain syndrome pfps is the most common cause of knee pain in the outpatient setting. Patellofemoral pain syndrome brigham and womens hospital. It frequently occurs in teenagers, manual laborers, and athletes. It is a very common knee injury, which occurs when your patella kneecap comes in contact and rubs with your femur thigh bone. Clinical test for diagnosis of patellofemoral pain. With patello femoral syndrome pfs, you get an imbalance in these musclesusually the lateral or outside muscle overpowers the inner medial muscle, and this pulls the patella out of its normal groove. Patellofemoral pain syndrome home university health. Women are two times more likely to develop pfps than men. Patellofemoral pain syndrome is pain in the front of the knee. Dec 19, 2018 the knee pain often increases when you run, walk up or down stairs, sit for long periods, or squat. Blood tests dont help in diagnosing it but may be useful for ruling out more serious problems. Patellofemoral disorders comprise nearly 25% of all knee injuries evaluated in orthopedic clinics.
Patellofemoral pain syndrome pfps characteristically causes vague discomfort of the inner knee area, aggravated by activity running, jumping or descending stairs or by prolonged sitting with knees in a moderately bent position. Patellofemoral pain syndrome pfps is one of the most common. It is very common in dancers of all ages, from prepubescent students through to professional dancers and retired teachers. Patellofemoral pain syndrome pfps refers to pain located in the front of your knee and around your kneecap. The knee joint is composed of three bones the femur or thigh bone, the tibia or shin bone, and the patella or kneecap. There is no one key finding on clinical examination to diagnose patellofemoral pain. The current management of patients with patellofemoral. This is done on an outpatient basis and is relatively pain free. These involved approximately 200 participants with a diagnosis of patellofemoral pain syndrome. Article information, pdf download for influence of the hip on patients with.
Contributing factors include overuse and overload of the. Patellofemoral pain syndrome an overview sciencedirect topics. The term anterior knee pain is suggested to encompass all painrelated problems. Greek adaptation and validation of the patellofemoral pain. This means that imaging tests of the knee, such as xray or magnetic resonance imaging mri, are not needed to make the diagnosis. Mar 15, 2014 patellofemoral pain syndrome pfps characteristically causes vague discomfort of the inner knee area, aggravated by activity running, jumping or descending stairs or by prolonged sitting with knees in a moderately bent position. A proximal strengthening program improves pain, function, and biomechanics in women with patellofemoral pain syndrome. Aug 07, 2017 patellofemoral syndrome is a condition that describes pain in the front of the knee and around the kneecap, known as the patella. Patellofemoral pain syndrome treatment with 5 physical exercises. Patellofemoral pain syndrome pfps is a common cause of knee pain in adolescents and adults younger than 60 years. Patellofemoral pain syndrome pfps is an umbrella term used for pain arising from the patellofemoral joint itself, or adjacent soft tissues.
Xrays arent usually helpful as cartilage doesnt show up on them. Nov 27, 2012 there is no clear consensus in the literature concerning the terminology, aetiology and treatment for pain in the anterior part of the knee. The term patellofemoral pain syndrome pfss is used to define pain in the patellar groove between the thigh and the kneecap. Symptoms include pain under and around your kneecap. The diagnosis of patellofemoral pain syndrome is made by ruling out patellar tendinitis, prepatellar bursitis, plica syndrome, sindinglarsen and johansson syndrome, and osgoodschlatter disease. Evidencebased treatment for patellofemoral pain syndrome. Evidence based conservative management of patellofemoral. Patellofemoral pain syndrome pfps is one of the most prevalent musculoskeletal injuries comprising 25 % of knee injuries seen in sports medicine clinics 1, 2. Patellofemoral pain syndrome the patello femoral joint refers to a specific part of the knee joint. It is caused by imbalances in the forces controlling patellar tracking during knee flexion and. Patellofemoral pain pfp is a common diagnosis that includes an amalgam of conditions that are typically nontraumatic in origin and result in peripatellar andor retropatellar knee pain. The pain mainly occurs when climbing stairs, after long periods of sitting or in connection with sporting activities. It occurs with overuse or when there is more pressure on the patella kneecap than your body can tolerate. Patellofemoral pain syndrome pfps is one of the most common knee problem.
Patellofemoral pain syndrome american family physician. As the knee bends and straightens, the thigh muscles pull the patella into its groove on the femur. Patellofemoral pain syndrome commonly called runners knee describes pain in the patellofemoral joint kneecap and front part of femur that is caused by overuse rather than by a traumatic injury. Although the exact cause is unknown, patellofemoral pain syndrome can develop because of overuse, typically as a result of highimpact athletic activities that require running and jumping, or because of improper tracking of the patella on the femur. Patellofemoral syndrome symptoms, exercises, and treatment. When the patella doesnt track properly, it causes pain under the patella. The pathophysiology of pfps is not fully understood, but is thought. The various causes of patellofemoral pain syndrome pfps include. An individual treatment plan consisting of manual therapy, exercise and.
By excluding anterior knee pain due to intraarticular pathology, peripatellar tendinitis or bursitis, plica syndromes, sinding larsens disease,osgood schlatters. Patellofemoral pain syndrome patellofemoral pain syndrome is usually easily recognised from your description of your symptoms and confirmed by an examination of your knee. Patellofemoral pain syndrome pfpscausessymptomstreatment. Also termed anterior knee pain, patellar malalignment, and patellofemoral anthralagia. Patellofemoral pain syndrome pfps is also commonly referred to as anterior knee pain, chondromalacia patallae, or patellar malalignment. Patellofemoral pain syndrome or pfps typically refers to anterior knee pain usually occurring during activities such as running, squatting, or walking up and downstairs. Patellofemoral pain syndrome an overview sciencedirect. The clinician externally rotates the patients foot and then extends the knee while palpating the medial knee for click in the medial compartment of the knee or pain reproducing pain from a meniscus injury. Currently, there is not a gold standard assessment to diagnose pfps. Patellofemoral syndrome pfs is an irritation under the knee cap patella and the surrounding tissues due to increased compression. Patellofemoral pain syndrome usually causes a dull, aching pain in the front of your knee.
Patellofemoral pain is common, accounting for 1117% of all knee pain presentations to general practice. Patellofemoral pain syndrome diagnosis ucsf health. Patellar taping for patellofemoral pain syndrome in adults. Overuse, a change in activity, and an altered metabolic status are frequently responsible for the development of pfps. The clinician flexes the knee until the patient reports pain. Patellofemoral pain syndrome disease reference guide. Pain, function, and strength outcomes for males and females with patellofemoral pain who participate in either a hipcore or kneebased rehabilitation program. We suggest additional hipstrengthening exercises to patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome in order to decrease pain and increase functional status. Pain at the front of the knee underneath the knee cap.586 156 1479 835 608 1013 87 829 1149 470 305 689 1118 1296 951 273 274 379 613 1379 1302 1393 1344 429 1024 1421 421 863 97 1495 955 968